Different types of clinical research are used in accordance on the researchers and studies. Following are the different types of clinical research:
Prevention Research: It is used to prevent disorders from developing or returning. This research includes the study of various medicines, vaccines, vitamins, minerals, or lifestyle changes.
Treatment Research: It involves an intervention which include psychotherapy, medication, new devices, or radiation therapy or new approaches to surgery.
Screening Research: This researchpurposes to figure out the best ways to detect disorders or health conditions.
Diagnostic Research: This research benefits for finding the better ways to identify a particular and exact disorder or health condition.
Quality of Life Research: This research helps in improving the comfort and quality of life for individuals with a chronic illness.
Epidemiological studies: This research helps in seeking to identify the causes, patterns, and control of disorders in people.
Genetic studies: This research helps in improving the prediction of disorders by recognizing and understanding how genes and illnesses related. It also explores in different ways in which a person’s genes make them more or less likely to have a disorder. Further leading to a development of tailor-made treatments on the basis of patient’s genetic make-up.
Examples of different kinds of clinical research:
Most of the population believe that all clinical research involves testing of new medications or devices. Which is not true up to some extent, as some of the studies do not involve testing medications. Furthermore, healthy volunteers needed so that researchers can make the comparison in between the results to results of people with the illness. Some examples of other kinds of research are as follows:
- A genetic study includes blood tests with no changes in medication
- A long-term study that includes brain scans or psychological tests
- A family history study which involves conversation with family members learning about people’s medical needs and history.
Phases of Clinical Trials:
Clinical trials are designed to evaluate, calculate and test new interventions which includes medications or psychotherapy. These trials are conducted in four phases, each phase have a different purpose and help scientists answer various questions.
Phase I trials
This is the initial phase which studies assess the safety of a drug or device. Researcher’s experiments on drugs or treatment in a group of people (healthy volunteers) for the first time, it can take several months to complete. The study determines the effects of the drug on humans which includes how it is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. The researchers evaluate the treatment’s safety, identify side effects, and determine a safe dosage range.
Phase II trials
This phase tests the efficacy of a drug or device. The experimental drug or treatment is given to a larger group of people and takes several months to two years which involves up to several hundred patients.
Phase III trials
The studies include randomized and blind testing in several hundred to several thousand patients. Researchers confirm its monitor side effects, effectiveness, compare it to commonly used treatments, and gather the information allowing the experimental drug or treatment to be used safely.
Phase IV trials
Post-marketing studies are conducted after a treatment approved for use by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), provide additional information which includes the treatment or drug’s risks, benefits, and best use.